e Ethiopia

Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa, bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west, and Sudan to the northwest. The geographic coordinates of Ethiopia range from approximately 3° N to 15° N latitude and 33° E to 48° E longitude.



Ethiopia has a diverse climate, ranging from tropical savanna in the lowlands to temperate in the highlands. The country experiences distinct wet and dry seasons, with the rainy season typically occurring from June to September. Temperatures vary depending on altitude, with cooler temperatures in the highlands and warmer temperatures in the lowlands.


Ethiopia is home to a wide variety of fauna, including elephants, lions, leopards, and giraffes. The country’s numerous national parks and wildlife reserves, such as Simien Mountains National Park and Bale Mountains National Park, provide sanctuary for endangered species such as the Ethiopian wolf and the mountain nyala.

Longest Rivers:

The longest river in Ethiopia is the Blue Nile, which originates from Lake Tana in the northwestern highlands and flows into Sudan, eventually joining the White Nile in Khartoum. Other major rivers include the Tekeze River, the Awash River, and the Omo River, which play significant roles in the country’s agriculture and hydroelectric power generation.

Highest Mountains:

Ethiopia is known for its rugged terrain and towering mountains, including the Simien Mountains and the Bale Mountains. The highest peak in Ethiopia is Ras Dashen, standing at approximately 4,550 meters (14,928 feet) above sea level. These mountains offer breathtaking scenery and opportunities for trekking and mountaineering.



Ethiopia has a rich archaeological heritage, with evidence of human habitation dating back millions of years. The region was inhabited by early hominids such as Australopithecus afarensis, famously represented by the fossilized remains of “Lucy” discovered in the Afar region. Ethiopia is considered one of the cradles of human civilization.

Ancient Kingdoms:

Ethiopia’s recorded history dates back over 3,000 years, with the emergence of powerful kingdoms such as Aksum and Dʿmt. The Aksumite Kingdom, centered in northern Ethiopia, flourished from the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD and was known for its advanced civilization, trade networks, and Christian heritage.

Christian Kingdoms and Islamic States:

From the 13th to the 16th centuries, Ethiopia was ruled by a series of Christian kingdoms, including the Zagwe and Solomonic dynasties. In the 16th century, the rise of Islamic states such as Adal challenged Ethiopian sovereignty, leading to conflicts and shifts in power.

Modern Era:

In the late 19th century, Ethiopia faced external threats from European colonial powers, particularly Italy, which sought to establish control over the region. Ethiopia successfully resisted Italian colonization and maintained its independence, becoming a symbol of African resistance to imperialism. In 1936, Ethiopia was briefly occupied by Italy during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War but regained its sovereignty in 1941 with the assistance of Allied forces.

Recent History:

In 1974, Ethiopia underwent a revolution that led to the overthrow of Emperor Haile Selassie and the establishment of a Marxist-Leninist government known as the Derg. The Derg regime implemented radical socialist policies and faced internal opposition and armed conflict, including the Eritrean War of Independence and the Ethiopian Civil War. In 1991, the Derg was overthrown by rebel forces led by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), leading to the formation of a new government and the transition to a federal system.


Ethiopia has a population of approximately 117 million people, making it the second-most populous country in Africa after Nigeria. The population is diverse, comprising numerous ethnic groups, languages, and religions. The largest ethnic group is the Oromo, followed by the Amhara, Tigray, and Somali.

Ethnicity and Language:

Ethiopia is a multiethnic nation with over 80 different ethnic groups, each with its own language, culture, and traditions. The official language of Ethiopia is Amharic, although English and other regional languages are also widely spoken. The Ethiopian government recognizes several regional languages, including Oromo, Tigrinya, and Somali.


Ethiopia is a predominantly Christian country, with the majority of the population adhering to the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. Islam is also practiced by a significant minority, particularly in the eastern and southern regions of the country. Traditional indigenous beliefs, such as animism and ancestor worship, are also prevalent, particularly among rural communities.


Education in Ethiopia is provided by both public and private institutions at all levels, from primary school to university. Primary education is free and compulsory for children ages 6 to 14, although access to education remains limited in rural areas. The Ethiopian government has made efforts to improve literacy rates and expand educational opportunities for all citizens.

Administrative Divisions

Ethiopia is divided into nine ethnically based regional states and two chartered cities, each with its own regional government and administrative structure. The regions, along with their respective populations, are as follows:

  1. Addis Ababa – Population: 5 million
  2. Afar – Population: 2.5 million
  3. Amhara – Population: 27 million
  4. Benishangul-Gumuz – Population: 2 million
  5. Dire Dawa – Population: 500,000
  6. Gambela – Population: 400,000
  7. Harari – Population: 300,000
  8. Oromia – Population: 40 million
  9. Sidama – Population: 4 million
  10. Somali – Population: 8 million
  11. Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR) – Population: 20 million
  12. Tigray – Population: 6 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Ethiopia by population include:

  1. Addis Ababa – Population: 5 million
  2. Dire Dawa – Population: 500,000
  3. Adama – Population: 400,000
  4. Gondar – Population: 350,000
  5. Mek’ele – Population: 350,000
  6. Bahir Dar – Population: 300,000
  7. Hawassa – Population: 300,000
  8. Jimma – Population: 250,000
  9. Dessie – Population: 200,000
  10. Adigrat – Population: 200,000

Education Systems

Education in Ethiopia is provided by both public and private institutions at all levels, from primary school to university. Primary education is free and compulsory for children ages 6 to 14, although access to education remains limited in rural areas. Ethiopia has made efforts to improve literacy rates and expand educational opportunities for all citizens.



Ethiopia is served by several international airports, with the main hub located in the capital city of Addis Ababa. Bole International Airport is the largest airport in the country and serves as a major gateway for both domestic and international flights. Other significant airports include Dire Dawa International Airport and Bahir Dar Airport.


Ethiopia has a developing railway network operated by the state-owned Ethiopian Railways Corporation. The total length of railways in Ethiopia is approximately 1,200 kilometers (750 miles), with major routes connecting Addis Ababa with Djibouti and other key cities. The Ethiopia-Djibouti Railway is a vital transportation link for both passengers and freight.


Ethiopia has an extensive road network consisting of highways, paved roads, and gravel roads. The total length of paved roads in Ethiopia is approximately 14,000 kilometers (8,700 miles), with major highways connecting Addis Ababa with other urban centers and regions across the country. The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Highway is a key international route linking Ethiopia with Djibouti and the Red Sea.


Ethiopia is a landlocked country and does not have direct access to the sea. However, the nearby port of Djibouti serves as Ethiopia’s primary gateway for maritime trade and transportation. The Port of Djibouti provides access to international markets for Ethiopia’s imports and exports, handling the majority of the country’s foreign trade.

Country Facts

  • Population: 117 million
  • Capital: Addis Ababa
  • Official Language: Amharic
  • Religion: Christianity, Islam, Traditional Beliefs
  • Ethnic Groups: Oromo, Amhara, Tigray, Somali
  • Currency: Ethiopian Birr (ETB)
  • ISO Country Code: ET
  • International Calling Code: +251
  • Top-Level Domain: .et