The Australian economy, objectively disadvantaged by the territorial dispersion of settlements and therefore of productive activities, has in any case reached a very high level of development, first thanks to a form of substantial monoproduction, sheep breeding from wool (and only later also from meat), and later thanks to the progressive sectoral differentiation, which affected both the extractive activities and the manufacturing industries and the tertiary sector. The country, however, is still heavily dependent on foreign countries for many industrial products and for the export of raw materials. As a result, it felt the backlash of the crisis that occurred in the early 1970s, despite being close to self-sufficiency from an energy point of view. However, the prospects remain good and guarantee the Australia
3.1 AGRICULTURE AND MINERAL RESOURCES The presence of artesian aquifers has allowed, in addition to breeding, the cultivation of the land, even if it has conditioned the scarce extension of the cultivated areas; agriculture is productive and diversified, and fully satisfies internal needs, also contributing to exports. THERE. it is one of the largest cereal countries in the world, with particular reference to the production of wheat (24,067 t in 2005), followed by barley, sorghum and oats. The variables required by the world market – the Australia, given its low population, is above all an exporting country, through the seaports of Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide – cause significant fluctuations, sometimes accentuated by climatic factors. Among the industrial plants, the main one is sugar cane, cultivated, as well as cotton, in the eastern coastal strips, in a rather hot and humid climate; cotton, through irrigation practices, is also produced in Australia Western. The fruit-growing areas were extensive, as were vines and citrus fruits, the production of which is largely managed by Italian settlers, particularly in Victoria. Breeding is a fundamental resource, especially sheep: the country, although overtaken by China for some time in terms of the number of heads, still holds the first place in the production of wool. Fishing is modest, concentrated on valuable species (oysters and lobsters). the country, although for some time surpassed by China in terms of the number of garments, still holds the first place in the production of wool. Fishing is modest, concentrated on valuable species (oysters and lobsters). the country, although for some time surpassed by China in terms of the number of garments, still holds the first place in the production of wool. Fishing is modest, concentrated on valuable species (oysters and lobsters).
The subsoil is very rich. The quantities of oil make it possible to meet almost completely the national needs (the largest fields are in Queensland, on the island of Barrow and in the Bass Strait). Other minerals include coal (fourth largest producer in the world in 2004), natural gas, iron, manganese, copper and lead. There is no shortage of precious minerals: diamonds (third world producer in 2004) in Western Australia and Bow River, gold (second in the world) in Broken Hill and Kalgoorlie; silver (in fourth place) in Broken Hill, Silverton, Chillagoe, opals in Lightning Ridge, South Australia. For Australia 2017, please check mathgeneral.com.
3.2 INDUSTRY By tradition and by choice the Australia it is essentially a producer and exporter of raw materials (first for coal and wool, second for iron and third for wheat); has never organized a transformative economy in any way comparable with that of other developed countries, also because the scarcity of the population and the consequent small internal market, on the one hand, and the geographic position secluded from the large markets of Europe and of North America, on the other hand, did not allow to enjoy consistent demand. In the last years of the century. 20 ° the industries have grown, the most consistent branches are the metallurgical, mechanical and chemical ones. This belated and accelerated diffusion of industrial activities is already beginning to show signs of maturity: there are, in fact, also in Australia cases of dismantling of heavy industries, especially steel plants, and relocation phenomena, with transfers of factories outside the agglomerations. This phenomenon is also favored by the concerns expressed by environmental movements about the risks run by the Australian ecosystem, which would have been compromised, in just two centuries, in a way no less serious than what happened in Europe during its millennial history.
3.3 TRADE The loosening of traditional ties with the United Kingdom and the rapprochement first with the United States and then with the emerging countries of East and Southeast Asia have produced radical changes in trade flows: at the end of the century. 20th the competition of Asian countries (among which Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore and China stand out) in the Australian trade exceeds 50%; the United States is the first country for imports, the United Kingdom, once a privileged partner, comes only in sixth place and for exports it is in third place after Japan and China (2004).
3.4 COMMUNICATIONS. – The boundless internal space of the Australia and its marginal position justify the widespread use of the plane, also for the transport of goods, and in fact the largest of the airports, Sydney, is more notable for the movement of goods than for that of passengers. International tourism is clearly growing, thanks to convenient air fares and the efficiency of the local tourism organization (approximately 5,498,000 visitors in 2005). Attractions include the Great Barrier Reef and Uluru (Ayers Rock), world heritage sites. Concerns and criticisms have been expressed by scholars and environmental movements regarding the protection and management of Australia’s natural heritage.