Brunei. Sultanate of Brunei (official name: in Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam, in Jawi: بروني دارالسلام, in Spanish: “State of Brunei, Abode of Peace”) is a country in Southeast Asia, located in the north of the island of Borneo. It comprises two territories, largely separated by the Limbang River basin and surrounded by the Sarawak territory. Its capital is Bandar Seri Begawan.
According to localcollegeexplorer, the Sultanate of Brunei was very powerful between the 14th and 16th centuries. His kingdom covered the entire island of Borneo and the southwest of the Philippines. European influence gradually weakened this regional power. The decline of the Bruneian empire culminated in the 19th century when Brunei lost most of its territory to the White Rajas of Sarawak, resulting in its present small landmass and separation into two parts. Brunei was a British protectorate from 1888 to 1984. There was a small rebellion against the monarchy during the 1960s, which was put down by the United Kingdom.. This event became known as the Brunei Revolt and was partially responsible for the failure to create the Federation of North Borneo. The rebellion also affected Brunei’s decision not to participate in the Malay Federation and was the first stage of the Indonesian-Malay confrontation.
Brunei is located on the north coast of the island of Borneo. It is made up of two unconnected territories. The territory is made up of a coastal plain with swampy areas to the west and northeast and a mountainous area in the interior. The rivers run in a northern direction, the most important being the Belait river. The country has a humid tropical climate, with an average temperature of 27.8 ° C. Rainfall is intense throughout the year, but increases in the monsoon months from Novemberto March.
Its relief is not very relevant. The highest peak in the country, Mount Bukit Pagon, is located to the east, it is part of the Iran Mountains. In the western part of the country, the most extensive, it is even less mountainous, only a few mountains stand out, especially on the border with Malaysia.
The rivers are short since almost all of them originate in the country and go north, emptying into the South China Sea. The most important river is the Belait river that runs through the western part.
The country’s abundant fauna includes more than 157 species of mammals: panthers, tigers, monkeys, and a wide variety of birds, lizards, and snakes. There are also many nature reserves.
In 2007, Brunei had a population of 374,500. 67% are of Malay origin, 15% are of Chinese origin, 6% are natives and the remaining 12% are made up of other ethnic groups. The official language is Malay. Life expectancy is 75 years. 93.9% of the population is literate. The average number of children per woman is 1.97.
Brunei’s economy is based on the exploitation of its mineral resources: oil fields, natural gas (first country in export of liquefied gas) and coal. Also forestry and fishing. Its agriculture is of a tropical type with cultivation of rice, coconut and rubber.
Government and politics
The Sultan of Brunei, who has been of the same dynasty since the 14th century, is the head of state and government. Sultan Muda Hassanal Bolkiak is assisted by a Privy Council, a Council of Ministers, and a twenty-member Legislative Council. Brunei is one of the few countries in the world that still does not recognize women’s suffrage. Currently, the monarch has a fortune that reaches 20,000 million dollars, one of the greatest personal wealth in the world. As he likes eccentricities, he has a palace with more than 1,500 rooms and a collection of more than five thousand luxury vehicles (including 165 Rolls-Royce).
The culture of Brunei is similar to that of Malaysia, with slight influences from Hinduism and Islam. The majority of holidays correspond to Islamic festivals so they follow the Muslim calendar
The official language is Malay, but Chinese, English and Jawi are also spoken.
The Islam is the official religion of Brunei, and the sultan is the head of religion in the country. Other religious rites practiced are Buddhism (mainly by the Chinese), Christianity mainly in small isolated communities.