According to politicsezine.com, Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Libya to the west, Sudan to the south and Israel and the Gaza Strip to the east. To its northeast lies Jordan, and Saudi Arabia is situated directly east of Egypt. The Sinai Peninsula separates Egypt from Israel, with a 12-mile wide strip of land known as the Suez Canal connecting them. This canal is one of the most important waterways in all of Africa due to its strategic location between Africa and Asia.
The small nation of Djibouti lies across from Egypt’s Red Sea coast. It shares a maritime border with Eritrea and Somalia as well. The western border of Egypt continues along Libya’s Mediterranean coast, which is bordered by Tunisia and Algeria in turn. To its south are Chad and Niger while Central African Republic lies further westward. Finally, Ethiopia borders both Sudan and Djibouti, making it an important neighbor for Egypt in terms of both trade and political relations. As such, these countries all play an integral role in maintaining stability within the region as well as facilitating international cooperation between nations in North Africa, East Africa, and Southwest Asia.
Government of Egypt
According to programingplease.com, Egypt is a republic in which the president is both head of state and head of government. The President is elected by direct, popular vote for a four-year term, with a maximum of two terms allowed. The President appoints the cabinet and vice presidents. Legislative power rests in the Parliament, which consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwaab) and the Shura Council (Majlis al-Shura). The House of Representatives has 596 members who are elected for five-year terms in individual constituencies. The Shura Council has 264 members, 176 elected by popular vote and 88 appointed by the President.
The judiciary is independent and consists of various courts including civil, criminal, administrative, religious (for Family Law), constitutional, national security and military courts. Judges are appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council. Egypt’s legal system is based on Islamic law (Sharia) as well as French and Italian civil codes; however it also applies some English common law principles such as judicial precedent. There are several political parties operating in Egypt; however no single party holds an absolute majority in Parliament or can claim to have exclusive control over government policies.
Recent Heads of Government of Egypt
The current President of Egypt is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who took office in June 2014. He was elected with 97 percent of the vote, following the overthrow of his predecessor, Mohamed Morsi, in a military coup in July 2013. El-Sisi was appointed Minister of Defense by Morsi in August 2012 and was instrumental in the 2013 coup. As President, he has sought to restore stability to Egypt and rebuild its economy. He has implemented a number of economic reforms and increased security measures to combat terrorism and other forms of crime. El-Sisi has also sought to improve Egypt’s relations with other countries, particularly those in the Middle East and North Africa region. He has made multiple visits to the United States, Russia, China, Saudi Arabia and other countries to discuss security issues and economic development opportunities for Egypt. He has also sought to strengthen ties between Egypt and its Arab neighbours through increased trade and investment links. In late 2017 he declared a state of emergency following a terrorist attack on Coptic Christians that left over 300 dead. El-Sisi continues to be popular among Egyptians for his efforts at restoring stability after years of unrest under Morsi’s rule.
Major Political Parties in Egypt
The two major political parties in Egypt are the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) and the Wafd Party. The FJP is a conservative Islamic party affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood, which was founded in 1928 by Hassan al-Banna. It is currently led by Mohamed Morsi, and it advocates for a greater role for Islam in government and society. The Wafd Party is a liberal nationalist party that was founded in 1919 by Saad Zaghloul. It supports a secular democracy, and it has been the main opposition to the FJP since 2012. The Wafd Party is currently led by El-Sayed El-Badawi, and it has a strong presence in both urban and rural areas of Egypt. Both of these parties have had an important role to play in Egyptian politics since 2011, when the Arab Spring began. In 2013, President Morsi was elected from the FJP, but he was overthrown later that year due to mass protests against his rule. Since then, there have been several rounds of elections with both parties competing for seats in parliament. In 2020, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi won re-election as president under the banner of his own political party, For Love of Egypt. While this party has become increasingly influential on the national level, it still faces strong competition from both the FJP and Wafd Party at local levels across Egypt.