The official name is the Republic of Cape Verde (Republica de Cabo Verde).
Located on the archipelago of the Cape Verde Islands. The area is 4033 km2, the population is 408.8 thousand people. (2002, estimate). The official languages are Portuguese and Creole. The capital is the city of Praia (95 thousand people, 2001). Public holiday – Independence Day July 5 (since 1975). The monetary unit is the eshkudu.
Member ok. 40 international organizations, incl. UN (since 1975), AU (since 2000).
Geography of Cape Verde
The archipelago of the Cape Verde Islands is located in the Atlantic Ocean between 14°48 and 17°6 N, 22°36 and 25°18 W, approximately 500 km west of Dakar (Senegal). It includes 18 islands. The islands of Sal, Boavista and Mayu are characterized by a flat landscape, while the rest are mountain ranges with clear signs of volcanic origin. The coastline is gently sloping sandy or rocky, there are several bays convenient for navigation. The highest point is Fogu volcano (2829 m). There are no rivers and swamps, they ceased to exist as a result of deforestation by the colonists. Dams have been built on dry riverbeds to collect rainwater. The main source of fresh water is artesian wells. Soils are infertile – sandy, limestone. Vegetation of the semi-desert type is poor, there are small plantings of eucalyptus and palm trees.
The bowels of the islands are poor. There are small deposits of table and potassium salts, pozzolana (used in the cement industry). The climate is tropical, dry. With a small amount of precipitation and an average annual temperature of + 22-26 ° C, droughts often occur.
The population of Cape Verde
From 1980s, according to Countryaah, the population increased by 25%. In 2002, the population growth was 0.85% per year. Birth rate 27.81%, mortality 7.1%, infant mortality – 51.86 people. per 1000 newborns (2002). Average life expectancy is 69.52 years (72.91 for women, 66.23 for men) (2002). Emigration 12.26%. Sex and age structure (2002): 0-14 years old – 41.9% (86,466 men and 84,918 women), 15-64 years old – 51.5% (respectively 100,684 and 109,841), 65 years and older – 6, 6% (10,363 and 16,488). 53.3% of the population lives in cities (2000).
Illiterate among adults 30%.
Ethnic composition of the population: 71% of the population are mulattoes, 28% are Africans, 1% are Europeans. Languages – Portuguese, Creole, West African.
90% of the population are Catholics, Protestants 2.5%. The rest adhere to traditional African beliefs.
History of Cape Verde
The Portuguese colonization of the Cape Verde Islands began in the 15th century. The number of imported African slaves gradually increased. The mixture of Portuguese and Africans created the Creole ethnic group. After World War II, the anti-colonial struggle intensified. In 1956, the African Independence Party arose, which in 1960 merged with the liberation movement of Guinea-Bissau to form the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PA-IGK). It was headed by an agronomist from Cape Verde, Amilcar Cabral. In 1963, she began an armed struggle in the territory of Guinea-Bissau. In 1973, Cabral was killed by agents of the Portuguese secret police. After the April Revolution of 1974 in Portugal, the metropolis granted independence to Cape Verde. In the first general elections to the National People’s Assembly, the PAIGC won, and on July 5, 1975, Cape Verde was proclaimed a sovereign republic. A. Pereira became the first president. His government set a course for building a socialist society.
A one-party system was introduced in the country, PAIGC became the ruling party simultaneously in two states – in Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau. In 1980, after a coup d’état in Guinea-Bissau, the party organization of Cape Verde separated from PAIGC and in January 1981 was renamed the African Independence Party of Cape Verde (PAIKV). Serious economic difficulties caused in con. 1980s growing dissatisfaction with the authorities. Under the influence of events in Eastern Europe, demands for economic liberalization and the creation of a multi-party system intensified. In 1990, an article of the Constitution was repealed, which established the PAIKV monopoly on power. In the parliamentary elections of 1991, PAIKV was defeated, the Movement for Democracy (MPD) won.
The MPD government set a course to create favorable conditions for the activity of private capital and achieved economic stabilization, but failed to improve the social situation of the majority of the population. As a result, the MPD lost the parliamentary and presidential elections of 2001. PAIKV again received a majority in parliament, and its leader P. Pires became president. Pires said that his government will continue economic reforms, but will pay more attention to social issues. In 2002, there was a sharp conflict between the government and the opposition over amendments to the budget. The opposition considered them unconstitutional and won the case in the Supreme Court.