The official name is the Republic of Cyprus (Kypriaki Demokratia, Republic of Cyprus). Located in Western Asia, on about. Cyprus, in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. The area is 9.25 thousand km2 (of which 3.355 thousand km2 is occupied by Turkish troops), the population is approx. 793 thousand people, incl. 88 thousand people in the occupied territory (2002). The official language is Greek (on the occupied territory – Turkish). The capital is the city of Nicosia (206.2 thousand people, 2001). Public holiday – Independence Day October 1 (since 1960) (in the occupied territory – November 15, since 1983). The monetary unit is the Cypriot pound (in the occupied territory – the Turkish lira).
Member of international organizations: UN (since 1960), Council of Europe (since 1961), OSCE (since 1975), WTO (since 1995), EU (since 2004).
Geography of Cyprus
Located between 33° east longitude and 35° north latitude. It is washed on all sides by the Mediterranean Sea. The shores are predominantly low-lying, slightly indented; in the north – steep, rocky. The length of the coastline is 648 km. The mountainous terrain prevails. Along the northern coast for almost 150 km stretch the Kyrenia ridge (height up to 1023 m) and the low-mountain ridge Karpas (height up to 364 m). The center and southern parts of Cyprus are occupied by the Troodos massif (height up to 1951 m, Olympus), composed of hypermafic rocks and gabbro. The magmatic complex along the periphery of the massif is overlain by marine carbonate sediments. The ridges of the northern and southern parts of Cyprus are separated by a wide intermountain plain Mesaoria (altitude approx. 200 m), composed of Meso-Cenozoic deposits. The relief is gently sloping.
Riverbeds are filled with water only after rains. Floods in winter and spring.
Up to a height of 500 m in the foothills and on the plains thickets of evergreen shrubs (maquis, frigana) predominate, the limestone southern slopes of the Kyrenia and Karpas ridges are distinguished by poor steppe vegetation. Forests cover approx. 20% of the territory (mainly in the Troodos massif) and consist of oak, cypress, Aleppo pine; in mountain valleys – oleander, tamarisk. Mouflon is found in the forests. There are snakes, lizards, chameleons. From birds – eagles, kites. Lots of migratory birds.
Minerals: chromites, iron and copper ores, asbestos (in the Troodos massif), etc.
The climate is subtropical Mediterranean. Hot summer (+25-35°C), mild relatively rainy winter (+10-15°C). The annual amount of precipitation increases from 300-500 mm in the plains to 1000-1300 mm in the mountains, where in winter snow forms in places.
Population of Cyprus
According to Countryaah, population growth over the past 10-20 years has averaged 0.5-1% per year. Birth rate 12.91%, mortality – 7.63%, infant mortality 7.71 people. per 1000 newborns (2002). Average life expectancy is 77 years, incl. 79.5 years for women and 74.7 years for men.
Sex and age structure of the population: 0-14 years 22.4% (88 thousand men, 84 thousand women); 15-64 years 66.6% (258 thousand men, 253 thousand women); 65 years and older 11% (36 thousand men, 47 thousand women).
Share of urban population 69% (2001). Literacy 97%.
In the total population, Greek Cypriots – 85.2%, Turkish Cypriots – 11.6%. There are also British, Arabs, Armenians, Italians, etc.
Languages: Greek, Turkish, English.
By religion, the Greek Cypriots are Orthodox (95%), the Turkish Cypriots are Sunni Muslims.
History of Cyprus
The origin of the earliest population has not been established. In the 15th-11th centuries. BC. Cyprus was colonized by the Achaeans, in the 9th century. – the Phoenicians. It was one of the centers of Mycenaean culture. In con. 8th c. subject to Assyria, c. 560 – the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose II, in the middle. 6th c. conquered by the Achaemenids. In 333-23 it was part of the state of Alexander the Great, in 294-58 – in the state of the Ptolemies, in 58 BC. e. conquered by Rome. After the division of the Roman Empire (395 AD), Cyprus went to Byzantium, in 648 it was conquered by the Arabs, in 965 it was conquered by Byzantium. In 1191 the crusaders captured the island. In 1192 the Kingdom of Cyprus was created (it existed until 1489), headed by a representative of the Lusignan family. In 1489-1571 Cyprus belonged to Venice, in 1571 it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. In 1878, Great Britain, in accordance with the Cyprus Convention (a secret treaty between Great Britain and Turkey “on a defensive alliance”) occupied Cyprus. After Turkey’s entry into World War I, Great Britain announced (November 5, 1914) the annexation of Cyprus, which Turkey recognized under the Lausanne Treaty of 1923. In May 1925, Cyprus received the status of a British colony. Back in the 19th century in Cyprus, the Greek Cypriot movement was born for the unification of Cyprus with Greece, which was of a national liberation character. During the British rule, the movement intensified, there were uprisings. The largest – in 1931 – was suppressed. After World War II, the independence movement developed with renewed vigor. In 1955, the EOKA movement (“National Organization of Cypriot Fighters” headed by a retired officer of the Greek army G. Grivas) was born in Cyprus, organized terrorist acts against British military and civilian personnel. The ongoing struggle of the Cypriots forced the British government to negotiate for the granting of independence to Cyprus. In February 1959, agreements were signed between Greece and Turkey (in Zurich) and between Great Britain, Greece and Turkey (in London), which provided for the granting of independence to Cyprus, and determined the foundations of the state system. Great Britain maintained three military bases in Cyprus. On December 4, 1959, the first presidential elections were held. The first president is Archbishop Makarios III. In December 1963, armed clashes took place between the Cypriot Greeks and the Turks. Since March 1964 UN troops have been stationed in Cyprus. As a result of the coup attempt by the Greek military junta in 1974, Turkish troops landed on Cyprus and occupied approx. 35% of the territory of Cyprus under the pretext of protecting the interests of the Cypriot Turks. In 1975, the Turkish Cypriot administration proclaimed the Turkish federal state of Cyprus on this territory, and in 1983, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (not recognized by the international community).