The official name is the Republic of Djibouti (Ripublique de Djibouti).
Located in North East Africa, in the Horn of Africa. The area is 23.2 thousand km2, the population is 820.6 thousand people. (2003 estimate). Official languages: French and Arabic. The capital is Djibouti (547.1 thousand people, 2003). Public holiday – Independence Day June 27 (since 1977). The monetary unit is the Djiboutian franc (equal to 100 centimes).
Member of the UN (since 1977), OAU (since 1972), AU (since 1972), Arab League (since 1977), AfDB, ICAO, OIC, IMF, IBRD, FAO, CGT, WHO, etc.
Geography of Djibouti
It is located between 43 ° east longitude and 11 ° 30 ′ north latitude, washed by the waters of the Bab el-Mandeb Strait and the Gulf of Aden of the Indian Ocean, the coastline is slightly indented, the only bay is Tadjoura. It borders on Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the north, west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The terrain is mountainous, it is an alternation of mountain ranges with low lava plateaus. The highest point is Mount Musa Ali (2028 m). The largest lake is Assal, 155 m below sea level, salty. All rivers are dry. The climate is tropical, dry. Permanent vegetation cover (forests) – on basalt mountain spurs north of the Gulf of Tadjoura. Vegetation is diverse in a strip up to 5-6 km wide along the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait and the Tadzhur and Aden Gulfs. Here and in the oases there are large mammals, antelopes, hyenas, jackals, monkeys in the forests. Lots of butterflies, insects and reptiles. Coastal waters are rich in commercial fish. The bowels are practically not explored. There is gypsum, large reserves of clay, high quality limestone and sea salt, there is a large deposit of perlite, pumice deposits. There is a fairly high probability of the presence of gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc.
Population of Djibouti
According to Countryaah, population growth rate is 2.59%. Population density – 27 people. per 1 km2. Birth rate 40.33%, mortality 14.43%, infant mortality 99.7 people. per 1000 newborns. Life expectancy – 51.6 years, incl. men – 49.73, women – 53.51 (2002). Economically active population – 282 thousand people. (2000). The share of the urban population is 60-70%, with slightly more than half of the country’s population living in the capital. Among the population older than 15 years, 46.2% are literate (1995). The republic is inhabited by two main peoples – the Issa and the Afars. Issa is one of the largest Somali tribes, they speak Issa, a dialect of the Somali language. Afars speak the Afar language. Ethnic composition (in%): Issa – 45, other Somali tribes (Isak, Gadabursi) – 15, Afars – 35, Europeans, Arabs, Ethiopians, etc. – 5%. Afars, Issa and other indigenous people are Sunni Muslims.
History of Djibouti
From the 7th c. With the penetration of Islam into the territory of Djibouti, Arab sultanates arise. In the 16th century as a result of the rivalry between the Turks and the Portuguese, the Portuguese seized power over the territory. From the 17th century power again passed to the Muslim sultanates. From Ser. In the 19th century, especially with the beginning of the construction of the Suez Canal (1856), European powers seized territories along the coast of the Horn of Africa in the struggle for control over the entrance to the Red Sea. France has been seizing the current territory of Djibouti since 1862, and in 1896 its possessions were called the French Coast of Somalia. For a long time, the colonial authorities gave preference to the Afars, with whose sultans they concluded agreements when expanding their possessions, which caused conflicts between the nomadic tribes not only because of the nomadic territories, but also on ethnic grounds. In 1946, the colony received the status of an overseas territory of France. World War II contributed to the development of the national liberation movement. In 1967, the colony received extended autonomy and the name French Territory of Afars and Issas (FTAI). Since 1972, the African People’s League for Independence (LPAI) became the leader of the struggle for independence, the majority of which were Issa. As a result of the referendum on June 27, 1977, the country became independent. LPAI leader Hassan Gulid Aptidon became President of the Republic of Djibouti. Since 1981, a one-party system has been introduced. Since 1972, the African People’s League for Independence (LPAI) became the leader of the struggle for independence, the majority of which were Issa. As a result of the referendum on June 27, 1977, the country became independent. LPAI leader Hassan Gulid Aptidon became President of the Republic of Djibouti. Since 1981, a one-party system has been introduced. Since 1972, the African People’s League for Independence (LPAI) became the leader of the struggle for independence, the majority of which were Issa. As a result of the referendum on June 27, 1977, the country became independent. LPAI leader Hassan Gulid Aptidon became President of the Republic of Djibouti. Since 1981, a one-party system has been introduced.
In the beginning of 1990s tensions between the Afars and the Issas escalated into armed clashes. In 1991, the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FVED) was created, bringing together three Afar organizations. In 1991-94, the Front waged an armed struggle against the government. The 1992 constitution allowed for a maximum of four political parties. In March 1994, the FVED split into two factions. One of them went to cooperate with the government party NOP (People’s Association for Progress). The opposition faction advocated the continuation of armed resistance. In February 1999, Gulid announced his retirement from politics. In April 1999, Ismail Omar Guelleh, the only candidate from the NLP, won the presidential election. In May 2001, the government signed a peace treaty with the rebels of the anti-government FVED faction, who resumed hostilities against the Gulid regime back in 1997. Parliamentary elections were held on January 10, 2003. The NOP received 62.2% of the vote, the FVED – 36.9%. In parliament, the NOP won all 65 seats and became the ruling party.