The official name is The Commonwealth of Dominica.
Located in the West Indies. The area is 791 km2. Population 71.7 thousand people. (census 2001). The official language is English. The capital is the city of Roseau (20 thousand people). Public holiday – Independence Day November 3 (since 1978). The monetary unit is the East Caribbean dollar.
Member of the UN and its specialized organizations (since 1978), OAS (since 1979), Commonwealth of Nations, CARI-COM, etc., observer in the Non-Aligned Movement.
Geography of Dominica
It is located between 15°12′ and 15°38′ North latitude and 61°15′ and 61°30′ West longitude. It is washed by the Caribbean Sea in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east. The length of the coastline is 148 km. The island is of volcanic origin, mountainous, has 7 extinct volcanoes, the highest is Morne Diablatin (1447 m), tectonic activity is observed, sometimes lava outcrops. Pumice deposits. The climate is tropical and humid. The average summer temperature is +29.6°С, winter +24.2°С. The annual amount of precipitation ranges from 1800 mm on the coast to 10,000 mm in mountainous areas. It has 365 rivers, of which Layu and Indian are navigable, numerous waterfalls, geysers, and sulfur springs. The area of the lakes is 11 km2, among them the alpine Boeri and the 2nd largest in the world Boiling Lake, the water temperature in which exceeds +90°С. The soils are clayey and colloidal. OK. 2/3 of the territory is covered with forests. There are 12 species of mammals, 20 species of freshwater fish, 166 species of birds, including two endemic species of parrots. The Morne Trois Pitons National Park has been declared a Natural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.
Population of Dominica
According to Countryaah, the population is declining (by 0.81% in 2002) as a result of emigration. Birth rate 17.3%, mortality 7.1%, infant mortality 15.9 people. per 1000 newborns (2002 estimate). Life expectancy 73.9 years, incl. women 76.9, men 71 years. The share of the urban population is 71%. There are 103 men for every 100 women. At the age of 0-14 years, 28.3% of the population, 15-64 years old – 63.8%, 65 years and older – 7.9%. Adult literacy is 94%. 89% of the inhabitants are descendants of African slaves imported in the 17th-19th centuries, 7% are mulattoes, and 1% are whites. The island has approx. 3 thousand indigenous inhabitants – Indians of the Caribs. The main part of the population in everyday life uses Patois – the local dialect of French, the Caribs have retained their language. St. 70% of believers are Catholics, in the last decade the influence of Protestant denominations has been growing.
History of Dominica
The Arawaks who originally inhabited the island were driven out by the Caribs in the 14th century. Discovered by H. Columbus in 1493. The French began to colonize Dominica in 1632. Throughout the 18th century. for possession of it there was a fierce struggle between Great Britain and France. The British finally gained a foothold in 1805, paying 12,000 pounds sterling as compensation. In 1768, a legislative assembly was created, which initially elected only representatives of the white population, the Negroes received the right to vote in 1831. In 1888-1940, Dominica was part of the Leeward Islands colony, in 1940-56 – the Windward Islands, in 1958-62 – part of the West Indian Federation. In 1967, it received the status of a “state associated with Great Britain” and internal self-government, independence was proclaimed in 1978. In 1979, a general strike and mass demonstrations took place in the country, as a result of which the first president and prime minister fled the country. After the creation of a provisional government and the holding of early elections in 1980, the situation returned to normal.
Science and culture of Dominica
Compulsory and free education for children aged 5 to 15. There are 64 primary and 14 secondary schools, respectively, with 13 and 6 thousand students. Secondary specialized education is provided in the college, which was established in 2002 by merging three previously independent educational institutions and has (2002/03) 1.1 thousand students. 3 weekly newspapers are published. There are 4 radio stations, 1 of which belongs to the government. There is no TV station, cable TV covers 1/3 of the island.
In 2000, the Academy of Culture and Science was established, which developed a comprehensive plan for the development of the country. The main cultural events are the annual carnival celebrating the abolition of slavery and the Independence Day celebrations. Since 1997, an international festival of Creole music has been held. The most common musical styles are reggae and calypso. The largest writer of Dominican origin is D. Rees, who left her homeland at the age of 16, in whose work national motifs have been preserved. The most famous local writers are F. Shad Allfrey and a follower of postmodernism – P. Baker. Museums in Roseau and Fort Shirley, where in the 18th century. there was a British garrison.