The official name is the Republic of Guinea (Ripublique de Guinee).
Located in West Africa. The area is 245.9 thousand km2, the population is 7.78 million people. (2002). The official language is French. The capital is the city of Conakry (1767.2 thousand people, 2003). Public holiday – Independence Day October 2 (since 1958). The monetary unit is the Guinean franc.
Member of the UN (since 1958), IMF (since 1995), AfDB, ECOWAS, FAO, AU, OIC, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WTO, etc.
Geography of Guinea
It is located between 7°38′ and 15°05′ west longitude and 7°12′ and 12°43′ north latitude. In the west it is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. The shores are strongly indented, riasic type with signs of recent flooding. There are many small and large low-lying islands off the coast and in estuaries. It borders Senegal to the north, Mali to the north and northeast, Cote d’Ivoire to the east, Liberia to the south, Sierra Leone to the southwest, and Guinea-Bissau to the northwest.
The western part of Guinea is the coastal lowland and the Futa-Jallon plateau, the southeastern part is the North Guinean Upland (up to 1752 m in height, Mount Nimba), and the plain in the northeast.
There are deposits of bauxite – 30% of the world’s reserves, diamonds.
The soils are predominantly red and red-yellow ferralitic. The climate is equatorial monsoon. The average monthly temperatures in most of the country are +18-26°С, on the coast up to +30°С. Precipitation from 1200 to 4000 mm per year.
The river network is dense and abundant. Most of the rivers originate in Futa Djallon and the North Guinean Uplands: Gambia (1200 km), Bafing (upper reaches of the Senegal River), Niger, and others. The most significant rivers that flow into the ocean in Guinea itself are Kogon, Fatala, Konkure.
Evergreen humid equatorial forests have survived mainly on the North Guinean Uplands. Along the coast are mangrove forests. In the southern and central regions there are highly sparse secondary forests and wooded savannah. In the north there are forest vannas and tall grass savannas.
The animal world is rich and diverse, but the number and species composition of large animals have been greatly reduced due to hunting. Elephants, hippos, antelopes, wild boars, leopard and cheetah have survived. Lots of monkeys. Snakes are common. Among the birds, the most numerous are small species from the passerine family – pests of crops and plantations. There are few freshwater fish, but the coastal waters of the ocean are very rich in fish (flying fish, tuna, sailfish, etc.); there are crocodiles. Mon Nimba Reserve (1944).
Population of Guinea
According to Countryaah, population growth is 2.23% per year (2002). Birth rate 39.49%, mortality 17.24%, infant mortality 127.08 people. per 1000 newborns (2002). Average life expectancy 46.28 years (2002).
Sex and age structure of the population: 0-14 years old – 42.8% (ratio of men and women 0.99); 15-64 years old – 54.5% (0.95); 65 years and older – 2.7% (0.7) (2002). Rural population 65%, urban 35% (1999). Among the population over 15 years of age, 39.5% are literate (men 49.9%; women 21.9%) (1995).
Ethnic composition: Fulbe 40%, Malinke 30%, Su-Su 20%, 10% – smaller tribes. Languages – French, Fang, Banyabi, Bakota.
Muslims – 85%, Christians – 8%, the rest adhere to local beliefs.
History of Guinea
Before the beginning 15th c. the territory of Guinea was partly included in the early state formations of Ghana and Mali. In the 1770s the early feudal military-theocratic state of Futa-Jallon pastoral nomads Fulbe was formed. In the 1880s-90s. the territory of Guinea was captured by France, in 1895 it was separated into a colony (under the name French Guinea), which became part of French West Africa. Since October 1958 an independent state headed by President A. S. Toure. In 1978–84 it was called the People’s Revolutionary Republic of Guinea. On April 3, 1984, a military coup took place. The leaders of the coup dissolved the parliament and the only ruling Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG). The operation of the Constitution of 1982 and the activities of mass organizations were suspended. Deposed the government of Louis Lansana Beavoga, who acted interim President of Guinea in connection with the death of Sekou Toure. The Military Committee of National Revival (VKNV) was created, headed by General Lansanta Conte, who took over the government of the country.
In 1991, the HCNV was dissolved and replaced by the Transitional Council for National Revival (TNRC), which, along with the military, included civilians. According to the new Constitution adopted in 1990, the START transferred its powers to a democratically elected parliament, and a presidential regime of government was introduced. In 1993, General Lansanta Conte was elected president of the country, and in 1995 elections to the National Assembly were held.
Science and culture of Guinea
Research institutes: National Institute for Scientific Research and Documentation, Guinean Pasteur Institute in Kindia (affiliated to the Pasteur Institute in Paris). Higher education institutions: Universities in Conakry and Kankan; in Maniha, Boke and Faranakh – institutes. Education is free. Compulsory primary education – 6 years from the age of seven (in 1995/96, only 48% of children in the corresponding age group: 63% of boys and 34% of girls). Secondary school (7 years from the age of 13) has two stages: 4 years (college) and 3 years (lyceum). The number of pupils in secondary schools in 1995/96 was only 12% of the children of the corresponding age group (18% of boys, 6% of girls).
An integral part of the culture are ritual festivities in the form of theatrical performances. In 1960 the national ballet was created. Filmed short documentaries.
Literature based on ancient traditions is currently being developed in French. In the 1960s began the development of writing for the national language. A major Guinean writer is Kamara Ley.
Characteristic monuments of fine arts are wooden and stone figurines of people and animals, carved utensils and tools, ritual masks. The most famous artists: M.K. Fallo, M.B. Spit.
Traditional music is largely associated with ceremonies (weddings, funerals) and ritual dances. Musical instruments: drums, bells, rattles, kore, flutes, horns. At religious Muslim festivities, traditional Guinean songs and dances are used.