The official name is the Republic of Honduras (Republica de Honduras).
Located in Central America. The area is 112.1 thousand km2, the population of St. 6 million people (1995). The official language is Spanish (local dialects). The capital is the city of Tegucigalpa (about 800 thousand people, 1995). Public holiday – Independence Day September 15 (since 1821). The monetary unit is the lempira.
Member of the UN and its specialized organizations, CARICOM, ECLAC, IBRD, IDA, IFC, IMF, Leningrad NPP, etc.
Geography of Honduras
In the north and east, Honduras is washed by the Caribbean Sea, in the southwest by the Pacific Ocean. In the south it borders on Nicaragua (the length of the border is 922 km), in the west – on Guatemala (256 km), in the southwest – on El Salvador (342 km). The total length of the border is 11,520 km, the length of the coastline is 820 km. Honduras is located in a tropical trade wind climate zone. The coastal plains (Sula and Mosquito Coast) have a hotter climate (+26-28°C in July). The main part of the country is located on a vast plateau, crossed by mountain ranges over 2000 m above sea level. The highest point in the country is Mount Selak (2865 m). In these areas, the average annual temperature is approx. 21°C, rainfall in the mountains – approx. 3000 mm per year (on windward slopes up to 5000 mm). In the interior regions and in the south of the country, the dry period lasts 5-6 months. in a year.
Arable land occupies 14% of the land, forests and shrubs – 34%, meadows and pastures – 30%. The subsoil contains deposits of silver, gold, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, bauxite, antimony, and coal. Valuable species of wood grow in the forests, coastal waters are rich in fish.
Flora – in the northern part of the country, a zone of tropical forests (palms, rubber trees, ebony, mahogany). In the drier southern regions, tree-like ferns, beeches, lindens, and ceibs grow. In the inner valleys – shrub vegetation and succulents (agaves, cacti).
The animal world is quite diverse: jaguars, cougars, monkeys, tapirs, armadillos, anteaters, opossums are common. Lots of bats, iguanas, rattlesnakes. Among the birds, hummingbirds and toucans stand out.
The population of Honduras
According to Countryaah, the average population density of Honduras is approx. 52 people per 1 km2. Birth rate 34.12%, mortality 6%, average life expectancy: men – 65 years, women – 70 years (1995). Ethnic groups: mestizos – 90%, Indians – 6%, blacks – 2%, persons of European origin – 2%.
The dominant religion is Catholics (97%), there are also Protestants.
History of Honduras
Most of the tribes that lived on the territory of Honduras before the arrival of the Spaniards were at the stage of the primitive communal system (chontal, choretegas, paya, ulbas, lenca, hikake). Only the Maya (who, apart from Honduras, inhabited the adjacent territories of Guatemala and Mexico) reached a high degree of development and in 1000 AD. created the state. The Indians themselves called their country Igueras or Ibueras. The name Honduras was given by the Spaniards because of the great depth of coastal waters (from the Spanish hondura – depth).
The expedition of C. Columbus reached the territory of Honduras in 1502. In 1525, Honduras was subordinated to the Spanish crown, in 1542, as an audience, it became part of the viceroyalty of New Spain, and from 1560, as part of the captaincy general of Guatemala.
In 1821, during the liberation war of the Spanish colonies in Latin America, Honduras declared independence and in the same year, under pressure from conservatives, joined Mexico. After the fall of the Mexican empire of Iturbide, from 1823 to 1839 Honduras was part of the United Provinces of Central America (together with Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica). Slavery was abolished in 1824. After the collapse of the federation, it became an independent state; in 1839, the Constitution of the Republic of Honduras was adopted.
Foreign powers took advantage of the unstable situation (inter-party struggle, frequent coups d’etat) both to penetrate the economic sphere (providing concessions and land for banana plantations) and for direct territorial expansion. In 1849–52, Great Britain seized part of the territory of Honduras (the islands of Islas de la Bahia and the coast of the Mosquito Coast), which aroused US concern. According to the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, Great Britain had to return these territories to Honduras in 1859. However, soon a detachment of Americans led by Walker invaded the country (the so-called Walker adventure of 1860).
Period of the 20th century characterized by political instability, for a long time the military were in power. The political and economic life of the country was under the control of the United States. To suppress popular uprisings, the United States repeatedly sent troops to Honduras (1917, 1919, 1924, 1925).