Economy of Italy
Main export commodity groups (%): machinery and equipment (19.6), means of transport (11.3), textiles and ready-made clothing (10.2), chemicals and artificial fibers (10.0), electrical and precision equipment (9.2); main import commodity groups: means of transport (15.0), chemical goods and artificial fibers (13.5), electrical and precision equipment (13.2), minerals (10.2), metals and metal products (9.2 ).
The balance of foreign trade in services was negative in all respects, except for tourism. The negative balance of the movement of private capital amounted to 4.6 billion, state – 1.0 billion.
Due to the specifics of the corporate structure that has developed in Italy – the small number of large TNCs and the weakness of the stock exchange – it was belatedly involved in the process of international direct investment and is still significantly inferior in this respect to other G7 countries. In 2001, the export of Italian direct investment amounted to 23.6 billion euros, imports – 15.8 billion. But the total volume of capital exports increased by 1.8 times in 1995-2000 (including portfolio investments – by 3.4 times, direct – by 65%), while the inflow of capital into Italy increased by 1.6 times (portfolio investment – by 2.4 times, direct – by 71.4%). The main external source of direct investment, as well as the scope of Italian direct investment, is the EU.
In the 1990s Italy has significantly expanded trade and investment cooperation with the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as with the Russian Federation. It is the second largest partner of the Russian Federation in the Western world in terms of trade ($10.8 billion in 2001) and the second most important creditor ($11.8 billion). In terms of invested capital, it is in 9th place (approx. 1.6 billion dollars), with an indicator of 4.2% of the total volume of external receipts to the Russian Federation. The share of direct investment in this amount is 11.2% ($165 million). According to available data, there are several hundred enterprises with Italian capital in the Russian Federation. More than 200 representative offices of Italian firms, as well as offices of 6 large banks, have been opened in Moscow.
The largest project already implemented is the construction in 2002 of the Blue Stream gas pipeline, which transmits Russian gas through Turkey to Western Europe. The Italian company “Agip”, which is part of ENI, laid both branches of this gas pipeline along the bottom of the Black Sea with a length of 380 km. The second major project is related to the Merloni company, the leader in the Russian refrigerator market (Stinol brand) and has a program to expand investments in the Russian Federation. The Benetton company (more than 80 stores, 13 of which are in Moscow) controls 55% of the Russian market for inexpensive clothing for young people.
Population of Italy
According to Countryaah,the dynamics of the population as a whole is unfavorable. During 1985-2002 (last year – estimate), the birth rate decreased from 9.9 to 8.9‰, the death rate increased from 9.5 to 10.1‰, the total number of children per woman fell from 1.35 to 1,nineteen. Child mortality was reduced from 10.0 to 5.8 people. per 1000 newborns. The birth rate has been declining since ser. 1960s is insufficient to ensure natural growth. The indicators are worse than the European average and reflect the intensive aging of the population.
In terms of the aging index (the ratio of the age group of 65 years and older to the group of 0-14 years) – 127 – Italy ranks first in Europe. Over the past 20 years, the size of the 0-14 year old group has decreased from 22.6% to 14.4%, while the 65-year-old and older group has grown from 13.9% to 18.2%. The dependence index (the ratio of the age group of 65 years and older to the group of 15-64 years) increased over the same period from 20.3 to 27.1. This circumstance is one of the reasons for changing the retirement age stipulated by the legislation of the 1990s from 60 years for men and 55 for women to 65 years for both sexes (this transition will be carried out gradually). At the same time, Italy has one of the best average life expectancy in Europe – 79.2 years. Between 1970 and 2002, it increased from 69.0 to 76.1 years for men and from 74.9 to 82.6 years for women.
The ratio of the male and female population in 2002 was 94:100, incl. by age groups: 0-14 years old – 106:100, 15-64 years old – 99:100, 65 years and older – 70:100. The literacy rate among persons aged 15 and over is 98%. In cities with a population of St. 10 thousand live 60% of the population. The north and center are characterized by a dense network of small towns with a population of 10,000 to 30,000 people, while the south is characterized by towns and villages, where one part of the population is employed in industry (most often of local significance) and the other part in agriculture. The process of urbanization continues: the number of cities with the population of St. 100 thousand people, zones of continuous urban development appear (for example, Turin – Milan – Bergamo).
St. 97% are Italians speaking local dialects of the Italian language. In the north there are German-speaking (Trentino-Alto Adige region), French-speaking (Valle d’Aosta) and Slovenian (Trieste Gorizia) regions, in the south – a small number of ethnic Albanians and Greeks. Since 1973 the balance of migration has been positive; communities formed (thousand people, 2000): Moroccans (170), Albanians (130), Filipinos (65), Yugoslavs (57), Tunisians (55), Chinese (50). Internal migration flows are directed from south to north.
The vast majority of Italians are Roman Catholics. There are communities of Protestant and Jewish faith, thanks to immigration, the Muslim stratum is growing.