History of Albania
For many centuries, Albania was under the rule of foreign enslavers: first – Ancient Rome, then – Venice and the last five centuries – the Ottoman Empire. A bright page in the struggle of the Albanian people for their independence in the history of the country is inscribed in the 25-year armed opposition to the Turkish conquerors in the middle. 15th century, which was headed by the outstanding Albanian statesman and commander George Skanderbeg. However, the final liberation of Albania from the Turkish yoke became possible only after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the 1st Balkan War.
The formal declaration of Albanian statehood, however, did not mean for it true independence from foreign influence. According to the secret London Treaty of 1915, the Entente provided for the division of Albanian territory between its allies. The occupying troops left the country only in 1920.
The first attempt to carry out democratic reforms in Albania was also unsuccessful. The government of Fan Noli, which came to power as a result of the June Democratic Revolution of 1924, was overthrown by feudal forces. The authoritarian regime of Ahmet Zogu was established in the country, who in 1928 was proclaimed king of Albania. As a result of the treaties of 1926, 1927 and 1936 imposed on Albania, the country fell into political, military and economic dependence on fascist Italy. And in April 1939 it was subjected to the last direct occupation. After the occupation by Italy, two years later, the Yugoslav territories, where the Albanian population lived, were united with Albania as part of a puppet state formation – the so-called. Great Albania. After the capitulation of Italy in September 1943, “Great Albania” was occupied by German troops.
At the end of November 1944, Albanian patriots liberated the country from fascist occupation. Since the Albanian communists led by Enver Hoxha were at the head of the successful liberation struggle, and other political forces were either compromised by cooperation with the occupiers or did not enjoy significant influence, after the liberation a one-party totalitarian regime was established in the country.
Only in December 1990 did the country move to a system of political pluralism. In March 1991, the first free multi-party elections were held, in which the Albanian Labor Party (until 1948 the Communist Party of Albania) won and its leader Ramiz Aliya became the first president of the country. However, the ruling party, despite being transformed into the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP), failed to stay in power, and a year later, as a result of early parliamentary elections, the Democratic Party of Albania (DPA) came to power and its leader Sali Berisha became president.
Crash at the beginning The 1997 pyramid scheme, closely associated with the ruling regime, led to an armed popular uprising and put an end to the five-year rule of the DPA. As a result of new elections, the socialists returned to power. The failure of attempts by the radical democrats in September and November 1998 to return to power by force of arms contributed to the strengthening of democratic institutions in the country and forced all the country’s political forces to switch exclusively to legal methods in their activities. The victory of the center-left coalition in the 2000 municipal elections and the 2001 parliamentary elections also contributed to the stabilization of the political situation in the country.
Science and culture of Albania
According to ejiaxing, with the beginning of radical market reforms, the coverage of the population with primary education decreased to 81% (2000). As a result of emigration in the 1990s. up to 1/3 of the country’s intellectual potential, even greater damage was inflicted on higher education and the scientific sphere. The sphere of culture was in a difficult position.
Meanwhile, the Albanian people have something to be proud of and something to save for future generations. In the 19th and 20th centuries Albanian literary classics were formed. It is represented by such names as Jerome from Rada (“Albanian Rhapsody”), Fimi Mitko, Zef Serembe, Vaso Shkodrani, Naim Frasheri, Gjerg Fisht (the author of “Mountain Dombra” – one of the best works of all Albanian literature), Andreni (under this Aleks Stavro Drenova created a pseudonym, the words from the poem “Freedom of Albania” in 1912 became the national anthem of the country), etc. Fan Noli occupies a special place among the brightest representatives of Albanian literature – not only a politician, but also the author of excellent poems, a translator into Albanian the language of the classics of European literature.