Political parties in Lebanon
A characteristic of political parties in Lebanon is their relationship to the nation-state of Lebanon. Even in pre-war Lebanon there were different attitudes towards the state: The Syrian National Socialist Party (SSNP) propagated a unity of the countries Syria and Lebanon. As a counter-offer to this party, Pierre Gemayyel founded the phalangist party ” Al Kataeb “, which stands for Lebanese patriotism. A paramilitary arm emerged within the Al Kataeb, which later became the Lebanese Forces party. The Pan-Arab Ba’ath Partyin turn, is an organization founded in Syria that spread to several Arab countries. It represents an Arab pan-nationalism.
Another important feature of the Lebanese party system is that almost all parties that have emerged are based on a socio-denominational system in which the major parties are the exclusive representatives of the respective denominations led by large landowners and clientele. An example of this is the Progressive Socialist Party (PSP), which is considered the traditional “electoral association” of the Druze landowner family Jumblat in the Schouf Mountains. However, the oldest of the Lebanese parties is the Communist Party of Lebanon, which was founded in the 1920’s and founded several trade union associations. The Lebanese communists are non-denominationally organized.
List of Lebanese political parties:
- Future Movement (Saad Hariri)
- Parti socialiste progressiste (Taymour Joumblatt)
- Forces Libanaises (Samir Geagea)
- Phalanges libanaises (Samy Gemayel)
- Parti national libéral (Dory Chamoun)
- Mouvement du renouveau démocratique (Farouk Jabre)
- Movement de la gauche democratique (Elias Atallah)
- Amal movement (Nabih Berri)
- Hezbollah (Hassan Nasrallah)
- Parti social nationaliste syria (Ali Qanso)
- Courant patriotique libre (Michel Aoun)
- Ramgavar Asatakan (Hagop Kassarjian)
- Association of Islamic Charitable Projects (Houssam Qaraqirah)
- Armenian Revolutionary Federation
- Social Democratic Hntchak Party
- Mouvement du peuple (Najah Wakim)
- Lebanese Communist Party
- Parti democratique libanais (Talal Arslan)
- Parti Vert Libanais
- Arab Democratic Party
- Bloc national (Raymond Eddé)
- Mouvement Marada (Soleimane Frangié Jr)
- Gardiens des Cèdres
- Jamaa Islamiya (Assaad Harmouche)
- Murabeitoun (Ibrahim Qoleilat)
- Ba’ath Party (Assem Qanso)
- Union chrétienne démocrate libanais (UCDL)
State and administration
According to neovideogames, Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy on the basis of a denominational proportion. The country’s constitution prescribes a separation of powers. Parliamentary elections are to be held every four years. The state president is elected by the deputies for six years. According to the Taif agreement, it was determined that the three most important offices in the country would be divided between the three largest denominations:
- The head of state must be a Maronite Christian
- The President of Parliament must be a Shiite Muslim
- The head of government must be a Sunni Muslim
This proportional representation determines the entire administration and does not stop at the legislature either. The parliament with its 128 members is made up of 34 Maronites, 27 Shiites, 27 Sunnis, 14 Rum Orthodox, 8 Druze, 8 Rum Melikite Catholics, 5 Orthodox Armenians, 2 Alevites, 1 Armenian Catholic, according to the principle of denominational parity, 1 Protestant and 1 minority. The Lebanon Parliament is currently split horizontally across denominations, so that no majorities can be organized.
Lebanon is divided into six governorates, which are made up of a total of 25 districts:
- Lebanon Mountains, administrative headquarters: Baabda (districts: Jbeil, Kesrouan, El Metn, Baabda, Aley, Chouf)
- North Lebanon, administrative headquarters: Tripoli (Akkar, Tripoli, Zgharta, Minnieh-Dinnieh, Koura, Bscharre, Batroun)
- Bekaa, administrative headquarters: Baalbek (Hermel, Baalbek, Zahlé, West-Bekaa, Rashaya)
- Nabatiyeh, administrative headquarters: Nabatiyeh (Nabatiyeh, Hasbaya, Marjyoun, Bent Jbeil)
- South Lebanon, administrative headquarters: Saida (Jezzine, Saida (Sidon), Sour (Tyros)
Corruption and nepotism are widespread in Lebanon. Large-scale bribery is not uncommon even among political leaders. Widely ramified networks of organized corruption formed under their protection. Corruption and a lack of transparency are the cause of the country’s predicament.Corruption inhibits economic development. In this context, journalists are repeatedly fined for researching corruption.
Since the murder of Hariri, Lebanon has been unstable in terms of security policy. This instability was exacerbated by the Syrian conflict. There is a risk of terrorist acts across the country. Since May 2013, rockets and car bombs have repeatedly claimed deaths and injuries in the southern suburbs of Beirut. There have been repeated attacks on religious and political personalities, which have also claimed uninvolved victims. Occasional kidnappings occur. The lack of political stability and the ongoing violence in Syria heighten fears that Lebanon could be drawn into the Syrian war. The first signs of this are the two suicide bombings in front of the Iranian embassy.
It is advisable to follow the safety instructions from the Federal Foreign Office and to keep an eye on the local news. Local people should also be involved in planning trips outside the city of Beirut. During your stay, it makes sense to register on the crisis prevention list of the German embassy in Lebanon.