In June 1976, according to an estimate, the population amounted to 17,880,000 residents distributed over an area of 458,730 km 2(excluding the territories of Western Sahara annexed in 1976). Of the 395,883 foreigners present in 1960, only 111,909 remained in 1971, but many were repatriated even later due to the policy conducted against them, which culminated in the expropriation of the land they belonged to. In addition to the French residents, numerous Israelite Moroccans also left (there were 162,420 in 1960 and 31,119 in 1971). However, the annual rate of population growth (30 ‰) is still too high in relation to the resources available. The urban population constitutes 38% of the total (29% in 1960). Two centers stood out for the remarkable growth that occurred between the censuses of 1960 and 1971: Dar-el-Beida (Casablanca) from 965,277 to 1,506,373 residents, And the conurbation of Rabat-Salé, which increased from 303,244 to 530,366 residents (of which 367. 620 in Rabat and 155,557 in Salé). Following the agreement of January 4, 1969, Spain ceded to Morocco the enclave of Ifni, while Ceuta and Melilla still remain subject to it. Then, in 1976, Morocco took over the administration of part of the Western Sahara, formerly a Spanish overseas province. In the years following independence, many cities changed their old colonial names: Alćazarquivir into Ksar-el-Kébir; Casablanca in Dar-el-Beida; Fédala in Mohammedia, Louis Gentil in Youssoufia, Mazagan in El-Jadida, Mogador in Essaouira, Petitjean in Sidi Kacem, Port Lyautey in Kénitra and Villa Sanjurjo in Al Hoceïma.
Economic conditions. – The economy is governed by development plans: from 1960 to 1964 the goal was an annual increase in the gross national product of 6.2%; from 1965 to 1967 by 3.5%. In reality, for the whole period 1960-67 only an average annual increase of 3% was achieved. The 1968-72 five-year plan, on the other hand, provided for a growth rate of 4.3% per year.
Agriculture absorbs about 61% of the active population and contributes with 31% to the formation of the gross national product.
Cereals, legumes, vineyards and horticultural crops provide the highest incomes, while the contribution of farming and forestry is less important (159,960 t of cork in 1971 and 3,154,000 m 3of timber produced in 1975). The most common cereals (wheat, barley and corn) provided a harvest of 35,330,000 q in 1975, significantly higher than the average of the years 1960-62 (21,689,000 q). Significant quantities of cereals are still imported (especially from the USA) with evident negative repercussions for the trade balance, even if sometimes part of the supplies arrive free of charge. Great commitment is placed by Morocco in the production of sugar beet, cultivated from the 1960s onwards with excellent results. The wine sector is continuously deteriorating (1,200,000 hl of wine in 1975) due to the low internal demand for wine whose consumption is forbidden to Muslims, and due to the decline in exports to France, once very high. This results in export prices which,
The fishing sector annually supplies approximately 210,479 t of fish (against 154,000 in the 1959-61 period), of which over 50,000 t go to the canning industry. In 1972, unilaterally, the Morocco extended the limit of its territorial waters from 12 to 70 miles from the coast.
Mining production reports subsidence, except for the continuously increasing phosphates (Khouribga and Youssoufia), so much so that production (19,749,000 t in 1974) has almost tripled compared to 960, and for which Morocco occupies the third position in the world rankings, behind the USA and the USSR. They are largely responsible for the progressive increase in the entire industrial production of Morocco, which increased by approximately 90% compared to 1960. The electricity sector, with 2,775 million kWh (48% of water origin) produced in 1974 has in turn marked a marked improvement over the past (991 million kWh produced in 1960). The motor vehicle assembly activity, which began in 1965, reached 24,336 units in 1975. The metallurgical, textile and building materials industries are also in progress. The food sector has achieved different results, with the exception of the sugar refinery alone (2,620,000 q of product in 1975) in continuous expansion. Industry contributes about 22% to the formation of the gross national product.
The great manufacturing center is Dar-el-Beida (metallurgical, food and paper industry), which develops at least half of the activity of the entire country and has the largest seaport. In 1975 the total movement of the port was of 14,553,000 tons of goods, of which 10,112,000 at embarkation. Important industrial centers are Safi, home to phosphate processing plants and fish preserves and their port of shipment (4,270,000 tons of goods handled in 1975), and Mohammedia, an operational satellite of Dar-el-Beida in the refining sector. For Morocco business, please check cheeroutdoor.com.
Foreign trade suffers from a chronic deficit position: in the period 1971-75 exports paid for only 75% of imports. In 1976, in particular, assets were purchased for 2618 million dollars against sales of only 1262 million. The biggest expenses concern food products (wheat and sugar) and semi-finished and finished industrial products. Exports consist of 65% phosphates, then agricultural products (citrus fruits, vegetables, wine, oil), preserved fish and handicrafts. In recent years Europe has absorbed on average 85% of exports of Morocco (which is associated with the EEC) and has supplied three quarters of the imported products. Mostly Europeans are tourists (1,204,664 in 1974 against 202.