According to Countryaah, population density is 107 people per 1 km2, which is 2-3 times lower than in neighboring countries, although in some areas (the Parisian basin, Provence, Cote d’Azur) the density index is several times higher than the average. 75% of the population lives in cities (2002).
The movement of the population of France is historically characterized by alternating long-term sharp rises and strong falls. The demographic growth for 1896-1946 amounted to only 0.3 million people, and for 1946-2002 – 20 million people. The main part of the increase occurred in the 1950s-70s, in 1980-2002 – only 4.9 million people.
Natural population growth is 4% with a birth rate of 13% and a death rate of 9%. The persistence of a relatively high level of natural increase is explained by long-term positive shifts in the population reproduction regime and the expansion of immigration. The improvement in the reproduction regime is manifested in a rather high (for a European country) birth rate, despite a decrease in the number of marriages and an increase in divorces, an increase in the average age of marriage, and an increase in the participation of women in social production. There is a steady decrease in mortality rates due to a decrease in infant mortality (4 per 1,000 newborns) and an increase in average life expectancy. The latter is equal to 79.05 years (including 75.17 years for men and 82.5 years for women), one of the first places in the world.
The ratio of men and women is 48.6: 51.4. The age structure is characterized by a pronounced tendency to aging. The proportion of people aged 0-14 years is 18.5%, 15-64 years old – 65.2%, 65 years and older – 16.3% (2002).
Due to the rapid increase in the importance of older generations, the growth of the economically active population lags behind the overall population growth. Number of employed 26.6 million people. Only 45.8% of the economically active population is in the most able-bodied ages (20-60 years), and 40.6% of this group are persons aged 40 and over.
According to forecasts, if current demographic trends continue, the population of France will increase by only 5 million people by 2050. At the same time, at least 1/3 of the population will be over 60 years old, and only 20% will be under 20. The economically active population will grow until 2006, and then it will begin to decline (by 2020 by 750 thousand people compared to 2002).
An important component of the demographic situation in France is immigration, which provided for the 2nd half. 20th century OK. 1/4 population growth. In the 1980s – ser. 90s the annual influx of immigrants was up to 100 thousand people, with ser. 1990s as a result of state restrictions, it decreased to 50 thousand people. In 2002, there were 3.3 million resident foreigners in France, i.e. residents who have not received citizenship rights. It is purchased annually by approx. 100 thousand people; their children and grandchildren are classified by official statistics as French. Taking into account such categories, at least 15 million people from other countries now live in France – almost 25% of the population.
In 2002, 40.3% of immigrants were Europeans (mainly from Portugal, Spain and Italy), 43% were Africans (mainly from Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Immigrants, especially those from African countries, have low industrial skills; the possibility of their employment in the conditions of the current stage of the scientific and technological revolution is small, and adaptation to the norms of life of the new homeland is difficult due to deep intercultural differences. The socio-economic problems arising in this regard (unemployment, crime) are manifested in political life by the accelerated growth of the influence of extreme right-wing parties.
France is characterized by a high level of educational preparation of the population. In 2002, the education system covered 14 million 390 thousand pupils and students, St. 1 million teachers, professors. 6.6% of the population have higher education, 15.1% have specialized secondary education. In 2002, 79% of lyceum graduates became bachelors. In terms of the total amount of spending on education and in terms of their share in GDP, France is one of the first places in the world.
The vast majority of the population is French. Several small ethnic minorities arose historically in the border regions, many of which formerly belonged to other countries. Now minorities do not exceed 6.5% of the population. The largest are the Alsatians, as well as the Bretons, Flemings, Corsicans, Basques and Catalans. Their cultural features, traditions, languages are considered in France as important elements of the common cultural heritage and are carefully preserved.
By religion, the overwhelming majority of the French are Catholics (83-88%). The second largest denomination is Muslims, far ahead of Protestants and Jews (respectively 5-10, 2 and 1% of the population).