According to the Constitution (1991), Bulgaria is a republic with parliamentary government, a single state with local self-government. Autonomous territorial formations are not allowed in Bulgaria. Its territorial integrity is inviolable. Political life is based on the principle of political pluralism.
The economy, according to the Constitution, must be based on free economic initiative. The right of ownership and inheritance is guaranteed and protected by law. The property is private and public. Private property is inviolable.
In administrative terms, according to Topschoolsintheusa, Bulgaria is divided into 28 regions, incl. the capital Sofia (with the rights of the region). The largest cities: Plovdiv, Varna, Burgas, Ruse.
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral People’s Assembly (Parliament). It consists of 240 deputies who are elected for 4 years on the basis of a proportional system. Parliamentary elections are based on the principles of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The right to participate in elections is granted to all Bulgarian citizens upon reaching the age of 18, and any citizen of the country who does not have another citizenship and has reached the age of 21 can be elected. Parties and coalitions that receive at least 4% of the total number of votes cast have the right to participate in the distribution of mandates at the national level. People’s representatives, as noted in the Constitution, represent not only their constituents, but the whole people. Parliament elects a chairman, temporary and permanent commissions. Chairman of the National Assembly (2002) – Ognyan Gerdzhikov. Elections to the current People’s Assembly of the 39th convocation were held on June 17, 2001. It consists of: 120 representatives of the National Movement “Simeon II” (NDV); 51 deputies from the United Democratic Forces (UDF) coalition; 48 – from the coalition “For Bulgaria”; 21 – from the coalition “Movement for Rights and Freedoms” (DPS).
The main body of executive power is the Council of Ministers (Government), which is headed by the Prime Minister. The government is elected by the parliament on the proposal of the prime minister, who is instructed in the prescribed manner to form the government by the president. Under the leadership of the government, the domestic and foreign policy of the state is carried out, public order and national security are ensured. The Council of Ministers exercises general management of the state administration and the Armed Forces, and the execution of the state budget. The activity of the government is directly controlled by the Parliament.
The Prime Minister directs and is responsible for the general policy of the Cabinet. Members of the government may not engage in activities incompatible with the position of people’s representative. Civil servants must be guided only by the law and be politically neutral.
On July 24, 2001, the People’s Assembly approved Simeon of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the representative of the largest parliamentary group of the NDSV, as prime minister.
Simeon Sakskoburggotsky (born in 1937) is the son of the Bulgarian Tsar Boris III. In 1946, after a referendum declaring Bulgaria a republic, he left the country. From 1951 he lived in Spain. Studied law and political sciences.
The head of state is the president. He is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, personifies the unity of the nation and represents the country in international relations. The President is directly elected for a term of 5 years and no more than two mandates. More than half of the voters must participate in the voting. A candidate who receives more than half of the valid votes is considered elected.
The President appoints and dismisses the senior command staff of the Armed Forces. He chairs the National Security Advisory Board. The President is given the power to declare war, martial law or a state of emergency when the People’s Assembly is not in session.
The President sets the date for elections to the People’s Assembly and to local self-government bodies. It determines the date of the national referendum when the People’s Assembly decides to hold it.
After consulting with parliamentary groups, the president instructs the candidate for prime minister nominated by the largest parliamentary group to form a government.
A Bulgarian citizen over 40 years of age who was born in Bulgaria, meets the conditions for election as a people’s representative and has lived in the country for the last 5 years can be elected President. The President cannot be a deputy, engage in other state, public and economic activities, participate in the leadership of a political party.
The first popularly elected president was Zhelyu Zhelev (1992), who was succeeded by Pyotr Stoyanov (1996). They were elected as candidates of the Union of Democratic Forces. In the November 2001 presidential election, Georgi Parvanov, the former leader of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, was elected president.
The main administrative-territorial unit is a community with a self-governing body, a community council. It adopts annual budgets and community development plans. The functions of executive power in the community are carried out by the committee. A region is a larger administrative-territorial unit, headed by a government-appointed regional manager with his own administration. Thus, regional state policy is carried out and a combination of national and local interests is ensured.